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Travels and Adventures

of the

Rev. Joseph Wolff, D.D., LL.D.

Travels and Adventures

OF THE

Rev. Jofeph Wolff, D.D., LL.D.,

VICAR OF ILE BREWERS, NEAR TAUNTON ;

AND LATE MISSIONARY TO THE JEWS AND MUHAMMADANS IN PERSIA, BOKHARA, CASHMEER, ETC.

" Who would not travel over sea and land, to be instrumental in the salvation of one soul /" FRANCIS XAVIER.

/, Joseph Wo lffy also am an Israelite, of the seed of Abraham of the tribe of LEVI, and I have preached the Gospel, not only from Jerusalem, round about unto Illyricum, but also from the Thames to the Oxus and the Ganges and the New World!

London :

SAUNDERS, OTLEY, AND CO.,

66, BROOK STREET, HANOVER SQUARE, W. 1861.

\The right of translation is reserved.]

LONDON : F. SHOBERL, PRINTER, 37, DEAN STREET, 3OHO, W.

4-5 207

TO

THE ET. HON. BENJAMIN DISRAELI, M.P., P.O.

THESE ADVENTURES AND TRAVELS

ARE DEDICATED, WITH HIS KIND AND EXPRESS PERMISSION,

BY HIS FRIEND AND ADMIRER,

JOSEPH WOLFF.

PREFACE OF DR. WOLFF.

T\7"OLFF lays now before the public, not an abridgment of his Travels and Adventures, but an edition, though in smaller type, enriched with many new remarks and notices. Every piece of information, the style and senti ments, the philosophical and theological views, the remarks on the heroes of his story, are his own throughout. They have been written down as he dictated them to kind friends who received them from his lips.

As to the great object of this work, Wolff has to make the following remarks. The first reason of his giving it to the world, was that a wish for its publication had been expressed, not only by members of the Church of England, but by persons belonging to other branches of the Catholic Church. In the second place, Wolff wished to prove to the world and to the Church, that the Lord is the Lord of Wolff as much as he was of Paul ; and that with GOD'S grace he is able to demonstrate to the Church at large that GOD has not cast away His people. Wolff is able to say, " Has GOD cast away His people ? GOD forbid ; for I also am, an Israelite, of the seed of Abraham, of the tribe of LEVI." GOD has not cast away his people ! And amidst good report and evil report, Joseph Wolff has proclaimed the Gospel to kings ; for in stance, Rundjut Singh, the King of Delhi, and the King of

Vlll PREFACE.

Lucknow, and to the Princes of Persia, to the Gentiles also, and to the children of Israel.

Another object that he had in view was to prove to the Jewish nation that he is not ashamed of confessing to the world that he is of the seed of Abraham, of that Semitic race which has given light, the light of knowledge of GOD as it is in Christ Jesus, and the light of civilization, to the world; and that, though born a Jew, he loves the Gentile world, and wishes to make all men as happy as he is himself, through the knowledge of Christ, and that he looks with pity upon those Jews who, though professing Christianity, are ashamed of being known to the world as sprung from the Jewish stock. Farewell !

CONTENTS.

CHAPTER I.

PAGE

Birth; Childhood; Talmudical Legends; Early Education and First Wanderings ; Falk and Gothe ; Baptism . . 1

CHAPTER II.

State of Religion at Vienna ; Five Religious Parties ; C. M. Hoff- bauer ; His Life and Habits; Count Stolberg and his Family . 14

CHAPTER III.

Prince Hohenlohe and his doings; Madame de Krudener, her great influence; Route from Germany to Rome . . 31

CHAPTER IV.

Rome and its Society; Pope and Ecclesiastics; Collegio Romano and Propaganda ; their Discipline ; is Expelled from Rome . 44

CHAPTER V.

Returns to Vienna; Monastic Life in Switzerland ; Henry Drum- mond ; Becomes a Member of the Church of England ; Lewis Way, the Philanthropist ; Studies at Cambridge ; Charles Simeon ; Is turned out of the Synagogue . . .69

CHAPTER VI.

Gibraltar; Argues with Jews; Malta, further arguments; Cleardo Naudi ; Alexandria ; Argues with Marpurgo ; Mr. Salt ; Sir Gardi ner Wilkinson ; Magic; Cairo ; Messrs. Carne and Clarke ; Mount Sinai ; Taken prisoner by Arabs ; Return to Cairo . .91

X CONTENTS.

CHAPTER VII.

PAGE

Desert ; Gaza ; Jaffa ; the Samaritans ; Mount Carmel ; Acre ; Sidon ; Argument with a Roman Catholic ; Mount Lebanon ; robbed by Bedouins; arrives at Jerusalem . . .131

CHAPTER VIII.

Jerusalem, its Inhabitants and Neighbourhood ; Controversies with Rabbis Mendel and Markowiz . . .150

CHAPTER IX.

Lady Hester Stanhope and her Prophet ; Earthquake at Aleppo ; Massacre of Christians at Nicosia ; Mediterranean ; Stay at Alex andria ; Holy Land . . .165

CHAPTER X.

Mesopotamia ; Ur of the Chaldees ; Haran ; Padan- Aram ; Kurdish Robbers ; Jacobite Christians ; Devil- Worshippers ; Sennacherib 186

CHAPTER XI.

Arrives at Bagdad; the Cuthites ; Bossora; Sabeans ; Bushire; Sheeraz ; Sheah and Soonnee ; Argues with Sooffees ; Jews quarter in Sheeraz . . . .199

CHAPTER XII.

Ispahan; Teheran; Tabreez; introduced to Abbas Mirza ; Tiflis; Erivan ; Armenia ; attacked by Typhus fever ; Circassia ; Crimea ; crosses from Odessa to Constantinople; reaches Dublin .217

CHAPTER XIIL

Loaves Dublin for London; Edward Irving; Lady Georgiana Walpole; Discussions at Albury Park ; Marries and is Natural ized as an Englishman; Visits Holland; Sails for Gibraltar; Malta ; Smyrna ; Egina ; Navarin . . . 232

CHAPTER XIV.

Sir Charles Napier; Ionian Islands ; Beyrout; Cyprus; Detained by Illness at Cairo; Address from Bishops of Cyprus; The De sert ; Exorcises an Evil Spirit ; Holy Land ; Jerusalem again ; Is Poisoned ; Dr. Stormont ; Jaffa . . . 249

CONTENTS. xi

CHAPTER XV.

PAGE

The Levant ; Is attacked by Pirates ; Mount Athos ; Intense Thirst ; Salonica and Admiral Slade ; Malta, and Hookham Frere ; Starts for Bokhara, on his own account, via Constantinople and Persia . 266

CHAPTER XVI.

Advance towards Bokhara; Colonel Campbell, Sir John McNeil, Borowsky the Jew; Plague; from Astaara to Teheran ; State oi' Persia; Boostan ; Journey through the Desert of Cayen . '280

CHAPTER XVII.

Burchund ; Taken Prisoner ; Dervishes ; Caravan ; Toorshesh ; Made Slave; Torbad-Hydareea ; The " Head-tearer ;" Released from Slavery . . . . .294

CHAPTER XVIII.

Meshed the Holy ; Borowsky again : Abbas Mirza ; Timoor ; Tur- comauns; Sarakhs; Desert of Merw; Guzl-Baash Slaves ; Gate of Bokhara ..... 308

CHAPTER XIX.

Bokhara ; Suspected of being a Russian Spy ; Inhabitants of Bok hara; Identity of Jewish Customs; Description of Bokhara; Morecroft ; Czoma de Koros . 328

CHAPTER XX.

Dangers of the way ; The Kafir Seeahpoosh ; Is spoiled and stripped naked ; Sir Alexander Burnes ; Cabul ; Is reclothed and recompensed ; Peshawur ; Abdul Samut Khan ; Route through Affghanistan ; Crosses the Sutledge and is safe . .351

CHAPTER XXI.

The Punjaub and Sikhs; Avitabile; General Allard; Lahore; Umritsur ; Rundjud Singh, and his Court; Loodhiana; Visions 370

CHAPTER XXII*

Sir Jeremiah and Lady Bryant ; the Governor- General, Lord Wil* Ham Bentinck and Lady William Bentiuck; Subathoo and Simlah ; and the society he met there , , 382

Xi CONTENTS.

CHAPTER XXIII.

PAGE

Cashmere; Nadown; Yoghees; Sheer Singh . . 391

CHAPTER XXIV.

Delhi ; The Grand Mogul ; Majo Fraser ; Agra ; Captain Have- lock; Cawnpore; A. Conolly; Lucknow; Dispute with Mool- lahs ; Benares : Buxar .... 405

CHAPTER XXV.

Route from Buxur to Calcutta; Bishop Daniel Wilson; Sir Edward Barnes, and other friends; Preaches for six days in succession . 421

CHAPTER XXVI. Hyderabad; the Thugs; their History, Manners, and Customs . 432

CHAPTER XXVII.

Captain Moore, R.N.; Severe Attack of Cholera at Ramahpatanij and Subsequent Illness; Mrs. Gillespie and Dr. Cooper; Mis sionaries; Infidel Objections answered; Broad- church ; Rhenius, the Lutheran Missionary ; Jews in Cochin . . 446

CHAPTER XXVIII.

Monks at Goa ; Jews at Poonah ; Conversation in a Palanquin ; Fat Jew at Bombay ; Mocha ; Travels in Abyssinia ; Arrives again at Malta . . . . .463

CHAPTER XXIX.

Summary of Eastern Missions ; What Wolff has done, and tried to do; Retrospect of India; Religious Societies and their Secre taries ; Return to Syria ; Abyssinian Mission ; Mistaken for the Abaona ..... 479

CHAPTER XXX.

Detained in Abyssinia by the illness of Gobat ; Returns to Jiddah ; Ibrahim Pasha ; Rcchabites ; Jews of Yemen . 496

CONTENTS. Xlll

CHAPTER XXXI. PAGE

Bombay ; St. Helena ; New York ; Robert Hall ; Apostolical Suc cession; Ordained Deacon in America, and Priest in Ireland; Marquis of Anglesea; Archbishop Whately ; Prepares for second Mission to Bokhara . . . .512

CHAPTER XXXII.

Obligation to British Officers; Arrangements for Second Journey to Bokhara; Sails for Gibraltar, Company on board, Lord Lyons; Malta ; Athens, King and Queen ; Constantinople ; Sir Stratford Canning; Arrives at Trebizond . . .522

CHAPTER XXXIII.

Route from Erzroom to Teheran: Sir Fcnwick Williams; the Koolagh ; the Head-Tearer in prison ; is convinced Stoddart and Conolly are dead, but proceeds : Colonel Sheil ; Wolff detests cant ... . 53-A

CHAPTER XXXIV.

Route through Khorassau to Bokhara in Clerical Dress ; Interviews with the King of Bokhara, who has become a great brute . 55 1

CHAPTER XXXV.

Abd-ul-Samut-Khan; His Villainy; Wolff in great danger of As sassination; the Persian Ambassador arrives; Fate of Stoddart and Conolly confirmed by the Jews ; History of Timoor * 568

CHAPTER XXXVI.

Escape from Bokhara ; Detects the hired Assassins ; Return home Baptismal Regeneration ; He Brewers ; Friends and acquaintance ; Oxford and Cambridge ; Conclusion . . .583

TRAVELS AND ADVENTURES

of

DR. WOLFF.

CHAPTER I.

Birth ; Childhood ; Talmudical Legends ; Early Education and First Wanderings ; Folk and G tithe ; Baptism.

ABOUT the beginning of the eighteenth century, a fierce persecution was raised against the Jews in Prague, by the students of that place. This spread generally against the members of that nation who were scattered throughout Bo hemia ; and compelled many of them to emigrate to Germany and other countries of Europe. A rabbi, named Wolff, whose family had been dispersed by these troubles, and who himself was born in the year 1 720, resided at a little village called Weilersbach, near Forcheim, in the district of Bamberg, and was appointed the rabbi of a small Jewish congregation there. Another rabbi, a cousin of Wolff, named Isaac Lipchowitz, settled himself at Bretzfeld, near Ebermannstadt, which was only three miles distant from Weilersbach. These two rela tives lived in great amity, and often visited each other ; and both married ladies of the country of Franconia. Wolff had two sons and two daughters ; the name of the one son was David, the name of the other son was Asshur. David, the elder son, who was born in the year 1750, left his father's house when he was seven years old, and studied Hebrew and the Chaldean languages, and the science of the Talmud, in the Jewish college at Prague, and learned the pure German lan guage in one of the elementary schools established there for the Jews ; Maria Theresa, the empress, and her son, Joseph II,, having not only arrested the persecution, but issued an order that all the Jews should be well instructed in the German language.

After David had finished his studies at Prague, he became

2 Travels and Adventures

the private tutor of several rich families in Moravia and Hun- garia ; and when he was thirty years of age, he returned to his native place, Weilersbach, where he found that both his father and mother had died. He then married Sarah, daughter of Isaac Lipchowitz, of Bretzfeld, his second cousin, and became a rabbi first at Weilersbach, in the year 1794. His eldest son was born in 1795, and was called " Wolff," after his paternal grandfather. This child is the subject of this history. The Wolff family belonged to the tribe of Levi.*

When the French invaded Germany, in 1795, the event struck terror among the Jews in Bavaria, for they had heard that the French committed all kinds of excesses. Rabbi David therefore, with his wife and first born son, then only fifteen days old, left Weilersbach, and was appointed rabbi at Kis- singen, where the family took up their residence. Young Wolff's mother and father often afterwards related in his pre sence, that their first-born son was so beautiful a child, that the Duchess of Weimar, and the whole Court of Weimar, and other visitors at the Spa of Kissingen, would frequently take him from the arms of his nurse, carry him about, and show him to each other as a prodigy.

In the year ] 796, another boy was born to David, who re ceived the name of Jacob Leeb. In the following year, Rabbi David went with his whole family to Halle, in Saxony, on the River Saale, which belongs to Prussia, and where there is a famous German university. Here also he was appointed rabbi of the Jewish community. In the year 1800, little Wolff and his younger brother were sent by their father to a Christian school, in order to learn to read the German language. In 1802, Rabbi David was appointed to a larger community of Jews, who were residing at Ullfeld, in Bavaria. Here young Wolff daily listened, with the highest interest, to the conver sation of his father, when the Jews assembled in his house in the evening time, and he spoke to them about the future glory of their nation at the coming of the Messiah, and of their res toration to their own land ; and also about the zeal of many rabbis who had travelled to Jerusalem and Babylon as preachers to the Jewish nation. He spoke with particular admiration of the great Moses Bar-Mymon, who had been a celebrated physician both among the Jews and Muhammadans,

* Wolff was not strictly the surname, or super-name, of this family, as the Jews observe the Oriental custom of bearing a single name, which is conferred at circumcision. " Wolff," however, had often before been a name in the family ; and the subject of this memoir " wakened " or re vived it from his father's father.

of Dr. Wolff. 3

and was also remarkable for his Talmudical learning and holi ness of life. Among other stories, he gave the following account of Mvmon. He related how that for many years My mon was ignorant of the Jewish law, and of every science, and was, to all appearance, devoid of any talent. And that, grieved at feeling himself much below his fellows, he left his father's house, and went into a synagogue, where he stretched himself near the ark where the law of Moses is deposited, and remained there whole nights in tears, praying to God that he would give him ability to become skilful in the divine law, and in other sciences. And the Lord so eifectually heard his prayer, that he subsequently became the famous Mymonides, and* was the friend of the Arabian philosopher Averoes, who wrote the More-Neboochim, which tries to explain the law of Moses in a philosophical manner, and many other works. Wolff's father also told his Jewish congregation the following- tradition, which made the most astonishing impression on the boy. It referred to the life of Judah-Haseed, the holy man, who became the great light of the Jews at Worms, in Alsatia. When his mother was with child with him, she met a Christian, who in driving his cart, purposely tried to run over and crush her. But a wall by the wayside, in a miraculous manner, bowed itself over the mother, and protected her from the de sign of the malignant Christian.

Rabbi David also frequently spoke about the Pope and his Cardinals, and the grandeur of his empire, and the magnifi cence of the city of Rome. And of our blessed Lord he told the young Wolff a curious tradition, or rather read it to him out of the Jewish Talmud, which contains a treatise on the destruction of Jerusalem by Titus. Therein Titus is described as the most wicked man in existence, and it is related of him that he died from the tortures produced by a little fly of copper which entered his brain during the seige, and increased in size until it became as large as a dove, and tormented him to death. But when he was dead, a man named Onkelos (then a heathen prince skilled in the practice of sorcery, though afterwards a Jewish convert, celebrated for his commentaries on the Bible), came forward and raised Titus to life by magic, and then asked him how he would treat the Jews 2 To which Titus replied that he should ill-treat them, and inflict upon them every pos sible torture. Upon this, Onkelos raised Jesus of Nazareth also from the dead, and asked Him how the Jews ought to be treated ? And Jesus of Nazereth answered, u Treat them well."

This history made a very deep impression upon young

B 2

4 Travels and Adventures

Wolff, so that he asked his father who this Jesus was ? And his father said that He had been a Jew of the greatest talent, but, as he pretended to be the Messiah, the Jewish tribunal sentenced him to death. Young Wolff' then asked his father, " Why is Jerusalem destroyed, and why are we in captivity ?" His father replied, " Alas, alas, because the Jews murdered the prophets/' Young Wolff reflected in his mind for some time, and the thought struck him, " perhaps Jesus was also a prophet, and the Jews killed him when He was innocent !" an idea that took such possession of him, that whenever he passed a Christian church, he would stand outside and listen to the preaching, until his mind became filled with the thought of being a great preacher, like Mymonides and Jiulah-Haseed ; and he would frequently go to the synagogue and stretch him self in front of the sanctuary where the law of Moses was de posited.

He would also place leaves torn from a Hebrew Bible or prayer book, in which the name of Jehovah occurred, under his cap, in order that he might be enlightened by the Spirit of God, and also be protected from the devices of devils ; and he often put nettle leaves under his shirt, in imitation of holy rabbis. He believed everything that he read, and was exceed ingly charmed with a book called Eegherette Baalee Hayam, which contained a lawsuit carried on against the human race by the animal kingdom, before the judgment seat of Ashmeday ; in which the human race were accused of usurpation of power and tyranny, whilst all the lower animals tried to show their superiority over man. Ashmeday, however, gave his verdict at last in man's favour, by citing the words in Genesis, chap. i. v. 28, " And God blessed them ; and God said unto them, be fruitful and multiply, and replenish the earth and subdue it ; and have dominion over the fish of the sea, and over the fowl of the air, and over every living thing that moveth upon the earth."

The following history also, which was told to Wolff by Jews, in which they tried to expose the folly and simplicity of the wife of a celebrated rabbi, made so deep an impression upon him, that he not only never forgot it, but it afforded a powerful proof to him that there are Jews who cannot rest in their minds about the conduct which their nation pursued against Jesus Christ. The history was this : The wife of a noted rabbi spent the greater part of the day in prayer before the holy ark, weeping and fasting, with ashes on her head ; her lips moving, but her words were not heard. And this was for the edification of all the Jews, and the admiration of her hus-

of Dr. Wolff. 5

band ; but in the depth of the night she got up from her bed, and shut herself in a room. On one occasion her husband watched her without her observing it, and he saw her kneeling down, embracing a crucifix, and heard her say these words : " Oh ! Jesus, if our nation was wrong, enlighten me, that I may weep over thy sufferings, and become attached to thee !" This so much excited the indignation of the rabbi, and the whole community, that the woman was divorced from her husband. So the story ends, and even to this day it has always been in the mind of Joseph Wolff.

Sometimes Wolff wished to go to Jerusalem, and appear there as a great preacher ; and sometimes he wanted to go to Home, and become a pope. He almost every day visited a barber, who was also a surgeon, and whose name was Spiess.* Here he would talk about the future glory of the Jews at the coming of the Messiah. And then in his simplicity he related that when the Messiah should come, He would kill the great fish leviathan, who ate ten millions of every kind of fish every day ; and who is as large as the whole world ; and would also kill a large ox, which is as large as the whole world, and feeds every day on the grass that grows upon 3,000 mountains ; and the Jews would eat of that fish and of that wild ox when the Messiah should come.

When Wolff was thus talking, Spiess and his family would be all the time in fits of laughter; but one day old Spiess, with his stern ^ok, said to little Wolff, " Dear boy, I will tell you who the real Messiah was ; He was Jesus of Nazareth, the Son of God, whom your ancestors have crucified, as they did the prophets of old. Go home and read the 53rd chapter of Isaiah, and you will be convinced that Jesus Christ is the Sou of God." These words entered, like a flash of lightning, into Wolff's heart ; and he can sincerely say that he believed, and was struck dumb. No word came out of his mouth, but lie went home to his father's house, and read the 53rd chapter of Isaiah in Hebrew, with the Jewish-German translation, and

* The worthy Spiess and his kindness, made such an impression upon Wolff, that he never forgot him ; and even so lately as in the year 1846, he wrote from He Brewers to the clergyman of Ullfeld, to ask what had become of his old friend and his family ? He was told, in reply, that Spiess and his wife had died only a few years before, but that his son and daughter were still alive, and recollected him very well; and they said that little Wolff was a very droll boy, and that they always liked him when he came to their house. They added, that one day he had said, "If ever I get a wife, and she does not obey me, I will put her in prison, and thrash her, and give her nothing to eat."

6 Travels and Adventures

then said to his father, " Dear father, tell me of whom does the prophet speak here I " His father stared at him, and gave no reply ; and Wolff dared not to ask him a second time, but went into another room, and wept. And there he heard his father say to his mother, who was also weeping, " God have mercy upon us, our son will not remain a Jew ! He is con tinually walking about, and thinking, which is not natural."

Wolff, the next morning, ran to the clergyman, who was a Lutheran, and said to him, " I will become a Christian, and be a preacher. Will you teach me Latin and French ? " He said to Wolff, "How old are you?" He replied, "Seven years." He said, "Wonderful, wonderful child; I cannot receive you, because you are under the tutelage of your father and mother. Come back to me when you are more advanced in age.n Wolff kept a perfect silence about this occurrence, and thus the time passed on.

When Wolff was eleven years of age, his father came as rabbi to Wiirtemberg, and sent him with his brother, Jacob Leeb, to the Protestant Lyceum in Stuttgardt. Wolff's brother had no mind for study, though he had a great deal more talent than Wolff. To sell old clothes was the height of Jacob Leeb's ambition \ and he actually did sell some school books, and bought with them pins and needles to sell again. Wolff grew tired of all this, so he left his father's house, when only eleven years of age, and went to Bamberg, a Roman Catholic town.

But, before doing this, he paid a visit to his father, who asked him, " What will you now learn? " He said, " Greek." Then he asked him, " What will you become?" He replied, " A physician and a preacher, like Mymonides." The old Jews who were present stroked their hands over their heads, and said, " Woe, woe, woe ! Your son will not remain a Jew ; he will be mixed with the Gentiles, and go the way of all the Gentiles." His father gave no reply. He then sought an interview with his uncle Asshur, of Weilersbach, who said, " Wolff, Wolff, give up studying, it will lead on to Christianity, and I shall disinherit you. You will not have one farthing from me. I will leave everything to my other nephews " his sister's children. Wolff replied, " They are more deserving of it than myself, for they are a staff to you in your old age." Wolff* then asked the blessing of his uncle. His uncle put his hands upon him, and said, with weeping eyes, " The Lord Jehovah bless thee, and rejoice over thee, as over Ephraim and Manasseh." Then he said, " Now go in peace ; say the blessing over everything you eat ; don't eat

of Dr. Wolff. 1

with uncovered head ; go every day to the synagogue ; never lie down without having said, ' Hear, Israel, the Lord our God is one God,' etc; and never neglect to wear fringes upon the four quarters of your vesture." This the Jews call Arba- Kanfos, and it answers to the scapularies of the Roman Catholics. Moreover, all the Eastern Churches, and even the Muhammadaris ; and all the Hindoos wear such scapularies ; and there is scriptural authority for it, as may be seen in Deuteronomy, chap, xxii., v. 12. And, therefore, scapularies are no marks of superstition.

Thus it was that Wolff arrived at Bamberg, where he was most kindly received by his cousin, Moses Lazarus Cohen, as well as by his wife. Moses Lazarus Cohen was a Jew of the modern style, rather leaning towards infidelity. He read the writings of Emmanuel Kant, Schiller, and Gothe ; and he rather liked the idea of Wolffs love of study, and introduced him to the Lyceum of the Roman Catholics. The famous Graser, a Roman Catholic priest who was married, entered Wolff as a pupil of the Lyceum ; and he was placed in the class taught by the Rev. Father Nepff. One Wednesday, Nepff said to Wolff, " Wolff, to-day you need not have come to the school, because I teach religion." Wolff said, " I rather wish to be present and to hear it." The first Wed nesday he expounded the Sermon on the Mount. The second Wednesday he expounded the 9th chapter of the Acts, con taining the conversion of Paul. When he enlarged upon this chapter, he said, " the church of Christ contained people who trod in the footsteps of Paul : such as Francis Xavier, Ignatius Loyola, and the many missionaries who went forth to preach the gospel of Christ to the nations." Wolff was so much struck with amazement, first with the exactness of the description given of the character of the apostle before his conversion, and then by the description of the Jewish tribunal, which is so wonderfully depicted in the words " And Saul, yet breathing out threatenings and slaughter against the disciples of the Lord, went unto the high priest, and desired of him letters to Damascus to the synagogues, that if he found any of this way, whether they were men or women, he might bring them bound unto Jerusalem," (Acts ix. 1, 2, 3) that he became determined to join the Christian Church. So he went back to the house of his cousin Moses Lazarus Cohen, and said to him, in the presence of his wife, " My mind is made up, I will become a Christian, and be a Jesuit ; and I will preach the Gospel in foreign lands, like Francis Xavier." The cousin laughed, and merely said, " You are an

8 Travels and Advent ares

enthusiast ! " but his wife became very angry, and threw a poker at him, and cursed him, and turned him out of the house.

Whilst Wolff was yet in his father's house, his father, in order to teach him how to write letters, would give him some models bv dictation the contents of one of which were as follows : " Dear father and mother, I have found very good employment in the house of one of the rich Jews of the family of Kaula, and have been enabled to lay by five florins, which I now send to you, in order to show that I wish to fulfill the commandment, 'Honour thy father and thy mother;7 and also to give a proof of my filial love towards you both."

When Wolff, in the course of time, came to Frankfort on the Maine, he gave lessons to some young Jews, and was able to lay by eleven florins, so he immediately sat down, and wrote a letter to his father, saying, " My dear father, I am now doing what I copied from your model ; but, instead of sending five florins, I am able to send you eleven."

Another of these model letters was as follows : " My dear father, I have now to inform you of something new, which you will like. I was tutor in the house of Rabbi Schlome Blowiz, a great banker in Bohemia ; and as he admired my skill in the Talmud, he has given me his only daughter as a wife, and with her 10,000 florins, as a dowry, so I send you a handsome present of thirty florins ; and I shall bring my wife to receive the blessing from you, that she may become like Sarah, Rebecca, Rachel, and Leah, who have built the house of Israel. Oh, that Jerusalem may be built soon, even in our days. Amen."" When Wolff did subsequently marry, he announced the event to his mother, and at the same time sent her £20, which he had received from a Mrs. Crofton, in Ireland, as an acknowledgment of her respect for him.

Wolff left Bamberg without saying one word, and without a single farthing in his pocket ; and travelled towards Wiirtz- burg. On his way, in a field, he found a shepherd, who was a Roman Catholic, and he asked him if he might stay in his house for the night ? The shepherd replied, " Yes, my friend," and brought him to his cottage. He then asked Wolff if he was a Roman Catholic? Wolff replied by giving him an account of his history ; and after they had partaken of a frugal meal, the amiable shepherd knelt down with his family, to pray the rosary ; but previous to their commencing the prayer, the shepherd said, "Let us pray five Ave Marias and one Paternoster for the good of the soul of this poor Jew, that the Lord may guide him to his fold."

of Dr. Wolff. 9

They prayed five Ave Marias and one Paternoster; and in the morning, before Wolff left, the shepherd said to him, " Friend, you are in distress ; allow me to share with you what I have got. I will give you two florins, which will carry you well to Frankfort." This loan Wolff accepted, and was afterwards able to return it to that excellent man.

He arrived at Frankfort on the Maine, where he found the Jews complete infidels, but benevolent men, and the Protestants neolooists. So he remained there only a few months, teaching- Hebrew, to get money that he might travel further ; and then he came to Halle, where he fell in with some professors, who were rationalists ; but he also met with one, Professor Knapp by name, a professor of theology, who said to him, " Young man, if you would become a Christian, merely because you believe that Jesus Christ was a great philosopher, remain what you are. But if you believe that Jesus Christ is the Son of God, and God above all, blessed for ever then pray to God that this belief may penetrate into your heart and soul."

Wolff had to contend at Halle with much external oppo sition both from Jews and from the infidelity of Christians ; and he suffered also from his own mind, which was too much in the world, and there wras much levity about him, which he himself confesses. He left Halle in the year 1810, and came to Prague, in Bohemia, having now in his purse money enough to carry him to Vienna. On his arrival at Prague, the Eoman Catholics entirely mistrusted him, saying, " Jews here become Christians by hundreds, without the slightest conviction of the truth of Christianity ; so that, if a boy twelve years of age does not get from his father what he wants, he says to him, ' Father, if you do not grant my request, I will hitch ' " (/. <?., apostatize ! ). Wolff therefore left Prague for Vienna, and from Vienna he went to Presburg, and then back again to Vienna, when every farthing of his money was gone. Here he walked about in deep sorrow near some barracks outside the town, called the Alster Caserne. But while plunged in hope less melancholy, an officer of the Austrian army came behind him, whose name was Major Zsigrey, of the Colloredo regi ment, and struck him on the shoulder, saying, " Young man, why so absorbed 2" Wolff made him acquainted with his history, and present want of means ; and showed him at the same time the testimonials he possessed from Professors Knapp and Niemayer. Major Zsio-rey said, stroking his moustaches, " Young man, if you will stay with me in my quarters for some months, and make yourself useful to me, I will give you enough to eat and drink, until you find some

10 Travels and Adventures

friend to take care of you." Wolff went with him, and one clay he was reading Virgil to himself, when the major said, ul)o you understand this book? read a little, and translate it to me ; " and Wolff doing this to his satisfaction, he said, " My dear young friend, you must remain with me as my guest, and eat at my table as long as you will." Wolff stayed with him about six weeks, and then left Vienna for Munich.

On his way thither, he came to Molk, a celebrated Monas tery of Benedictine Friars. He had read in novels, and heard even from Jews, that monasteries are the seats of learning, where one can improve one's self in science and religion. He therefore went to the Prior, whose name was Father Chris topher, and spoke to him in Latin. Father Christopher said, " You must be introduced by me to Father Florian Manuli, I can do nothing without him, because he is the catechist, and a man of great influence in the monastery." Manuli at once agreed to Wolffs desire to remain and receive religious instruc tion in the monastery, arid said that he was to teach Hebrew to the students, and continue his own Latin studies, for which he was to receive ten florins a week and his food. This monas tery was a very splendid one, and the monks lived " in dolce giubilo," amusing themselves in all kinds of ways. But they did not like Wolff, and they frequently set on their cook, who was a very handsome woman, to tease him ; and as Wolff was once sitting at dinner with the students, all of whom had hitherto respected him, the cook came in, and asked Wolff whether he would eat pork ? He said, " Yes," and then she began to sing in German

" Mauschel ist tod ! Mauschel ist tod ! 1st er tod ? Sei er tod. Friszt er kein Speck und Brod, Mauschel ist tod," &c.*

On hearing this song, Wolff became so angry, that he gave the woman a slap in the face, and fled the monastery, and came to Munich.

At Munich, the Jews were most kind to him, and he went into the Gymnasium to study Latin, Greek, history, and also dancing : all which were prescribed by Government. Wolff,

* " Moses is dead ! Moses is dead ! Is he dead ? Let him be dead. Then he will eat neither ham nor bread, Moses is dead," &c. " Mauschel" is a German nickname for Moses.

of Dr. Wolf. 11

however, did not wish to attend the dancing school, and he was asked why he would not ? So he wrote a short statement that he had no talent for dancing. The director, professors, and all the committee burst out laughing when they read his letter; and he was forthwith desired to learn to draw. This he also declined for the same reason. The director of the Gymnasium, whose name was Kajetan Weiler, a serious, stern- looking man, and a cold philosopher, but of firm principles, insisted upon his learning both. He never would draw a line, however, but got a friend to do his work for him, and all admired his skill, until he betrayed himself by telling them laughingly of the imposition. For this offence he was flogged with a birch, and imprisoned for twenty-four hours on bread and water, when the director, a monk of the Order of the Theatines, said, " Wolff, you had better wait some years before you are baptized ; the levity of your mind is at present too great." Besides this, Wolffs relations at Munich protested against his being baptized.

So he left Munich after a residence of six months, and came to Anspach, where he fell in with Protestant professors, all of whom were rationalists. For instance, Professor Stephani, who wrote on the Lord's Supper, a work in which he compared our blessed Lord with Cataline. Wolff also read the writings of Professor Paulus, on the New Testament, in which he not only denied the Divinity of Christ, but gave a most revolting description of his birth, for which the reader is referred to " Paulus's Commentary on the New Testament." Wolff also read the " Wolffenbiittelsche Fragmente," which completely disgusted him with Protestanism, and determined him to be baptized into no other Christian Church but the Eoman Catholic ; in which resolution he was confirmed by the perusal of the beautiful writings of Johann Michael Sailer.

At last, Wolff came, in the year 1811, to Saxe Weimar, where he studied under Director Lenz, of the Lyceum, son-in- law to the famous Saltzmann, who had the celebrated institu tion called Schnepfenthal, near Gotha, (a kind of preparatory college for the University) for young men from England and from other countries. Here, Johannes Falk, the satirical poet, and afterwards a great benefactor to the poor, the son of a wig- maker of Dantzic, but then Councillor of Legation at Weimar, and the intimate friend of Gothe and Schiller, took much interest in Wolff, and read with him the Latin Classics, and Natural Philosophy ; and gave him to read his own " Corio- lanus" and " Prometheus ;" but Falk was at that time a com plete Pantheist. When Wolff told him his design of becoming

12 Travels and Adventures

a Christian, and of treading in the footsteps of Ignatius Loyola and Francis Xavier, he said to him, " Wolff, let me give you a piece of advice. Remain what you are ; for, if you remain a Jew, you will become a celebrated Jew, but as a Christian you will never be celebrated, for there are plenty of other clever Christians in the world." One day, he was walking out with Falk, when a gentleman, with a commanding and wonderful countenance, came towards them. Wolff said to Falk, UI am sure this is Gothe." Falk said, "How do you know that ?" Wolff replied, " I have read his * Egmont,' and I juc^A>e from that. For only a man with such a countenance could have written ' Egmont.' r Gothe came towards Falk, and embraced him in a cordial German manner. Then Falk told Gothe, " Now, imagine, this boy knew you from having read your 1 Egmont.' r Gothe was flattered with this, and patted Wolff's head. Falk then told him, " He wants to become a Christian, and a man like Francis Xavier ; but I advise him to remain a Jew. in which case he will become a celebrated Jew/' Gothe said to Wolff, " Young man, follow the bent of your own mind, and don't listen to what Falk says."

Wolff was not pleased with the religion of Weimar, for although the men he met there were far from being infidels, still the religion of Herder, Gothe, Schiller, and Wieland, was